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Elements of general chemistry


Elements of general chemistry

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    Available in PDF Format | Elements of general chemistry.pdf | Unknown
    John Harper Long
Excerpt from book: Chapter III. CHLORINE AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS. WE COME now to the consideration of some very important substances which never occur in the free state in nature, but in many compounds are widely distributed. CHLORINE. Occurrence. This is an exceedingly abundant substance in combination, being one of the constituents of common salt. The other constituent is a body called sodium. It is found also in many compounds somewhat similar to salt, all of which are called chlorides. Salt is known as sodium chloride, while the next most abundant chloride is potassium chloride. History. Chlorine was first prepared by the great Swedish chemist, Scheele, in 1774, and by a method which is still commonly employed for the purpose, viz., by the action of black oxide of manganese on hydrochloric acid. Scheele did not, however, recognize the true nature of the substance, and it remained for Humphrey Davy, in 1810, to supply this information and propose the name now given to the body. Preparation. All methods of preparing chlorine depend on the decomposition of some of the chlorides. Usually we employ sodium chloride or hydrogen chloride, called also hydrochloric acid. The preparation by the use of hydrochloric acid will be illustrated first. This substance, as will appear later, is a compound of hydrogen and chlorine, and our problem is to separate one from the other. The next experiment will show how this can be done. Ex. 61. In a flask holding 300 Cc. or more, take about 50 Gm. of manganese dioxide, the substance already used with potassium chlorate in the preparation of oxygen. Pour over the dioxide about 200 Cc. of commercial strong hydrochloric acid. Close the flask with a stopper FIG. 13. having two perforations. Through one of these a funnel tu...  
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  • PDF | 312 pages
  • John Harper Long
  • General Books LLC
  • Unknown
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